Propagation Techniques Plant by Plant
Arborvitae can be rooted by cuttings in coarse sand or other suitable medium utilizing intermittent misting during the summer months. In the fall, cuttings can be rooted using a cold frame. Cuttings can even be taken over the winter months by utilizing a seedling heat mat for bottom heat.
Ash trees are most commonly propagated by seeds that are collected when they are ripe and planted outdoors immediately. Germination is usually successful the first season.
Deciduous Azaleas are most commonly propagated with seeds that are collected in the fall and planted immediately thereafter. Plant them in a propagation tray or flat, in an environment where they can be kept warm under natural or artificial light. Azaleas can also be propagated by softwood cuttings, with a higher success rate when using intermittent mist.
Evergreen Azaleas are most commonly propagated by hardwood cuttings taken in the late fall with a seedling heat mat for bottom heat. Propagation can also be successful with softwood cuttings taken in the late spring.
Most Barberry varieties are propagated using either softwood cuttings in late spring, or by hardwood cuttings in the late fall.
Basil is easily propagated by taking softwood cuttings at anytime during the summer months beginning in early June or by planting seed. Indoors, basil can be rooted year round under fluorescent plant grow lights.
Boston Ivy is grown from seed which should be planted outdoors mid-spring.
European Beech is propagated using seed that is collected when ripe and planted outdoors immediately.
Beech (Purple Leaf Weeping)
Purple Leaf Weeping Beech must be grafted onto a Beech variety that has been grown from seed.
White Birch is reproduced from seed. When they have ripened, collect the seeds and plant outdoors during the autumn months.
Birch (Weeping White)
For successful propagation, Weeping White Birch must be grafted on to a Birch rootstock that has been grown from seed.
Boxwood is propagated with softwood cuttings in early summer using intermittent mist or with hardwood cuttings in mid to late fall in an outdoor coldframe. Cuttings can also be successfully rooted using bottom heat in the winter.
Burning Bush can be reproduced utilizing softwood cuttings in late May or early June, or by hardwood cuttings taken in mid to late fall rooted in an outdoor coldframe.
Weeping cherries must be grafted on to a cherry rootstock that has been grown from seed. Collect the seeds when ripe, stratify for 150 days over the winter months, plant in the spring. Some have also had success taking softwood cuttings and rooting them under intermittent mist.
Cypress (Blue False)
Blue False Cypress is best reproduced taking semi-hardwood cuttings in late August and rooting under intermittent mist. Alternatively, hardwood cuttings can be taken in the late fall utilizing a seedling heat mat for bottom heat.
Cypress (Gold Thread)
Gold Thread Cypress are propagated by taking hardwood cuttings in the late fall months utilizing bottom heat. Semi-hardwood cuttings taken during the late summer with intermittent mist produces successful results as well.
Clematis is reproduced by taking softwood cuttings in the late spring. As with almost all softwood cuttings, misting intermittently will greatly increase success rates.
Cotoneaster is easily propagated by taking softwood cuttings in the late spring, or by taking hardwood cuttings in late autumn.
In the vast majority of cases, flowering Crabapple trees must be budded or grafted onto a rootstock grown from seed. Collect Crabapple seeds as they ripen in autumn and immediately plant outdoors as rootstock.
Daylilies are best propagated through division during spring and fall.
Chinese Dogwoods can be grown from seed or propagated by taking softwood cuttings in late May or early June. Collect Chinese Dogwood seed in the fall after ripening. To plant outside, you must stratify the seeds in moist peat moss for approximately 100 days. Afterwards, store the seeds in a refridgerator for another 100 days, at which point they will be ready to plant outside.
Dogwood (Red Twig)
Red Twig Dogwoods can be propagated through a variety of methods during multiple seasons. In April or May, layering is an ideal propagation method. In June, try taking softwood cuttings. In the late autumn months, hardwood cuttings are ideal. Propagation of this tree is extremely easy.
Dogwood (Yellow Twig)
White Dogwood trees can be grown from seed or by taking softwood cuttings in late May or early June. Collect the seed in the fall after it ripens. As with the Chinese Dogwood, you must stratify the seed in moist peat moss at approximately 70 degrees for 100 days. Afterwards, move the seeds to your refridgerator for an additional 100 days, at which point the seeds will be ready to plant outside.
English Ivy is easily propagated by taking softwood cuttings at anytime during the summer months beginning in early June.
Euonymus (Variegated Varieties)
In June and for most of the summer months, softwood cuttings are the preferred method of propagation. In the fall, hardwood cuttings propagated in a cold frame bed of course sand outdoors works well.
Pyrachantha can be propagated by taking softwood cuttings anytime in June, or in the fall with semi-hardwood cuttings rooted outdoors in a coldframe enclosed bed of course sand.
Grow the Concolor Fir from seed. Start by collecting seeds in the fall and storing them over the winter in a cool dry place. In the spring, you can sow the seeds directly outdoors. For best results, you should cover the seed bed with a clear plastic cover to retain humidity until the seeds have started to germinate, at which point it can be removed.
Washington Hawthorn trees are grown from seed, collected in the fall and planted immediately in an outdoor seed bed.
Canadian Hemlock trees are grown from seed. Pine cones should be collected during the fall months prior to them opening and releasing their seeds into the air. Take the unopened pine cones and place them in a paper bag to catch the seeds as the cones open. After collecting the seeds, store them in a cool dry place over the winter months. In spring, stratify the seeds for 30 days by placing them in moist peat moss in your refrigerator, then plant them outside after all danger of frost has passed.
English Holly is propagated by taking hardwood cuttings in the late fall. Bottom heat produced via a seedling heat mat greatly enhances success rates.
Japanese Holly is best propagated by taking medium softwood cuttings in the middle of the summer, or by taking hardwood cuttings in the fall in and propagating outside in a coldframe bed of sand. Alternatively, hardwood cuttings can be rooted indoors in late fall or winter using bottom heat provided by a seedling heat mat.
Hosta's are easily propagated by division in late fall or early spring.
Hydrangea (PeeGee or P.G.)
Grow from seed. Collect the seeds when ripe and store until late fall. Pre-treat the seeds by soaking overnight in hot water, and then stratify in moist peat for 90-120 days in your refrigerator. Then plant them outside.
Junipers root best using a misting system in conjunction with softwood to semi-hardwood cuttings in mid to late summer. Hardwood cuttings can be taken in the fall and rooted in an outdoor coldframe. Indoors, hardwood cuttings taken in the late fall or winter can be rooted with the assistance of bottom heat provided by a seedling heat mat.
Reproduce Leucothoe by rooting softwood cuttings anytime in June or by taking and rooting hardwood cuttings in the fall.
Linden trees grow from seed that should be planted immediately after collection when ripe.
Lirope is easily multiplied by division.
Maple trees are grown from seed. Collect the seeds when ripe and plant immediately outdoors.
Mountain Ash Trees
Mountain Ash Trees are propagated by seed. Just collect the seeds when ripe and plant immediately.
Blue Myrtle can easily be propagated by dividing larger plants.
Most oak trees are grown directly from seed. Collect the seeds when they have ripened and sow immediately.
Ornamental Grasses are easily propagated by simple division.
Bradford Pear trees are grown directly from seed, which should be collected when ripe and stratified in moist peat moss in your refrigerator for between 60 and 90 days prior to planting.
Plum Trees (Flowering)
Austrian Pine trees grow from seed. Follow same directions as propagating White Pine (below).
Mugho Pine trees also grow from seed. Plant them outside in the spring following same directions as White Pine below.
Pine (Weeping White)
Weeping White Pines must be grafted on to a white pine seedling for successful propagation.
Pine (White) Trees
White Pine is grown from cone collected seed. Gather pine cones in the autumn prior to opening and place them in a paper bag. Allow the seeds to open, which the bag will collect. Overwinter the seeds by storing them in a cool dry place until spring, then sow them directly outdoors.
Potentilla is best propagated by softwood cuttings taken in June, or by taking hardwood cuttings in the late fall.
Purple Leaf Winter Creeper
Propagate Purple Leaf Winter Creeper by taking softwood cuttings in early June, or with semi-hardwood cuttings taken throughout the summer months.
Red Bud Trees
Red Bud trees are grown from seed, which is collected when ripe and planted directly outdoors anytime in spring.
A variety of methods can be used to propagate Rhodes, depending on the variety. Most heirloom varieties can be grown from seed. Collect seeds during the fall and plant in a propagation tray. Place the flat under a grow light grow in an area where the temperature will stay around 70 degrees F. Hybrid varieties must be reproduced by taking cuttings. You can take softwood cuttings in late May or early June, rooting them using intermittent mist, or take hardwood cuttings and root them in a peat moss and perlite mix in the late fall using bottom heat provided by a seedling heat mat.
Rose of Sharon
Spruce (Colorado Blue)
Colorado Blue Spruce is propagated from seed. Collect pine cones before they open in the fall. Allow them to open in a paper bag to catch the seeds. Over the winter, store the seeds in a cool dry place, then plant them directly outside in the spring.
Spruce (Dwarf Alberta)
Reproduce Dwarf Alberta Spruce trees by taking softwood cuttings in mid to late June using a mist system, or by rooting hardwood cuttings in the late fall using a seedling heat mat.
Weeping Japanese Maple
Weeping Japanese Maples can only be propagated by grafting onto a rootstock first grown from seed.
Yews can be reproduced by taking softwood cuttings between early July and early August. You can also take hardwood cuttings in the fall and root them in course sand outside in a cold frame, or by rooting hardwood cuttings in late fall or winter with a seedling heat mat.
Propagate Yucca by taking cuttings from the roots in early spring and planting outside. All that is necessary is to cut a piece of the root about 3/4-inch long and plant it below the surface of the soil about 1/2-inch. New Yucca.
The source of the majority of this information is Michael McGroarty, a hands-on plant propagation expert and proprietor of the plant propagation site, FreePlants.com. He is the author of many books, publications and videos about plant propagation techniques. Article adapted with permission.